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CiiT International Journal of Automation and Autonomous System
Print: ISSN 0974 9659 & Online: ISSN 0974 9551

20082009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  January February March April May June July December

Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012001
Title: Cyclic Variations of Liquid Fuel –Air Mixing in a DISI IC –Engine
Authors: M. Suresh, Dr.R. HariPrakash and Dr.B. Durga Prasad

Keywords: Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Cyclic Variations, Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Internal Combustion Engine, Air–Fuel Mixing, Fuel Spray Injection
Abstract:
    Direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines have a large potential to reduce emissions and specific fuel consumption. One of the most important problems in the design of DISI engines is the cycle-to-cycle variations of theflow, mixing and combustion processes. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based analysis is used to characterize the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the flow field as well as the mixture preparation in a realistic four-stroke internal combustion engine with variable charge motion system. Based on the analysis of cycle-to-cycle velocity fluctuations of in-cylinder flow, the impact of various fuel spray boundary conditions on injection processes and mixture preparation is pointed out. The joint effect of both cycle-to-cycle velocity fluctuations and variable spray boundary conditions is discussed in terms of mean and standard deviation of relative air–fuel ratio, velocity and mass fraction. Finally a qualitative analysis of the intensity of cyclic fluctuations below the spark plug is provided.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012002
Title: A Secure Mobile Patient Criticality Analyzer for Judging Illness using Smart Device
Authors: Balamurugan Balusamy, Dr.P. Venkata Krishna and Nalini Priya
Keywords: Early Warning Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, Mobile Phone Programming, Remote Monitoring, Xml Digital Signature
Abstract:
     Medical Practitioners usually score the criticalness of the patient by ticking in a scoring sheet. Generally, everything is done manually and once in a month the details are entered into the hospital server. The doctor has to read these data of each patient by personally visiting them daily. In this paper, we help the doctors in getting regular updates on the patient’s condition using the Short Message Service and Hyper Text Transfer Protocol service. The Details such as ECG, Pressure, and Sugar level are entered through the mobile phone by a patient attendee. The user enters the details and sends it to the server. Server calculates the criticalness and sends entire log to the doctor on timely basis. Along with the illness score, the daily case sheet form is also sent to the server and stored, enabling the doctors to access critical data and act accordingly during emergency, even in their absence in the hospital. The system is vulnerable and prone to treats and false calls, in order to rectify, a XML Digital Signature scheme is added for sender and message authentication. The XML DSIG scheme will enable secure mobile implementation of data sent from and to the system.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012003
Title: Analysis of Security in Mobile Phone Payment Method using Near Field Communication
Authors: V.M. Navaneethakrishnan, D. Vinayagam and S. Kalaiselven
Keywords: Near Field Communication (NFC), NFC Emulations
Abstract:
     In olden days Market transactions are based on currency and they are currently being replaced by credit and debit cards. The use of the cards can further be simplified by use of mobile phones integrated with contactless card technology which gives us more security and saves time. More functionality can be added to the mobile based contactless device since the mobile based software is flexible. The contactless mobile device can be used as an alternative of credit and debit cards. Security is the main problem were the hackers can easily hack the secrete data during the payment of money. In this paper, we are analyzing a security method in which Near Field Communication (NFC) a contactless card present in a mobile device to be used as a replacement for conventional payment methods.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012004
Title: State-of-the-Art Wireless Technologies for Modern Home Applications
Authors: T. Suresh Padmanabhan, T. Balamurugan and P.J. Suresh Babu
Keywords: Bluetooth, GSM, RFID, Zigbee
Abstract:
 Recently due to the rapid advancements in wireless communication and information technologies it is now possible to embed various levels of smartness in the modern home. Wireless networks and sensors are seen to play an increasingly important role as key enablers in emerging pervasive computing technologies that are required for the realization of smart homes. A top level architecture of a smart home is illustrated in this paper. It includes a server/gateway/router that can be used as the central point of connectivity for devices within the home as well as allowing connectivity to the outside world. The setup also includes smart sensors as well as appliances that have either wired or wireless connectivity. This paper reviews some of the major wireless communication technologies that can be used to realize a smart home. A prototype system is designed and implemented to enable an authorized user to monitor and control home devices equipped with a smart interface structure using a mobile phone and also using pc. It enables monitoring and control of various devices with multiple levels of settings is described and the results achieved are presented.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012005
Title: Reducing the Wastage in Supply Chain Management Using Lean Principle
Authors: S. Mahendran and Dr. A. Senthil Kumar
Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Just in Time, Lean SCM, Quality Function Deployment
Abstract:

     In mechanical industry there is unpredictable demand, volatile and inflexible supply processes depending on heavy competition in marketing. The manufacturing and inventory cost are high. To reduce the cost using lean principles. Lean supply chain management is the processes, how well designed supply chain should operate, delivering products quickly to the end customer, with minimum waste. The focus of this multi-dimensional approach is on cost reduction and eliminating waste by using tools such as Just in Time (JIT). By linking Lean Attributes (LAs) and Lean Enablers (LEs), this study used Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to increase the leanness of the chain. Fuzzy logic is used to deal with linguistic judgments expressing relationships and correlations required in Quality Function Deployment (QFD). To illustrate the practical implications of the methodology, the approach is exemplified with the help of a case study in the Mechanical industry. We use the industry wide data, articles from business journals, industry reviews in India.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012006
Title: Generating of Fresh Water using Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System from the Humidity in the Air
Authors: T. Anbarasu, S. Karthikeyan and S. Pavithra
Keywords: Refrigeration, Absorption, Heat Exchangers, Pump, Lithium Bromide Systems, Solar Energy
Abstract:

     In vapour absorption Refrigeration system, it generates fresh drinking water and also extracts water from humid ambient air by using Cooling Condensation process offers the possibility of using heat to provide cooling. In this method refrigerant circulates through a condenser and an evaporator coil which cools the air surrounding it, lowering the air's dew point and causing water to condense. A controlled-speed fan pushes filtered air over the coil. The resulting water is then passed into a holding tank with purification and filtration system to keep the water pure. For this purpose heat from a conventional boiler can be used or waste heat and solar energy. When the latter systems are used absorption systems minimize also the adverse effects of burning fossil fuels and thus protect the environment. Absorption systems fall into two major categories, depending on the working fluids. These are the ammonia-water systems, in which ammonia is the refrigerant and lithium bromide-water systems in which water vapor is the refrigerant. The future trends of research in this area would be on other refrigerant pairs which will be more effective.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012007
Title: Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridge
Authors: Shrikant Srirambhat, Dr.G. Mohan Ganesh and Dr.A.S. Santhi
Keywords: Cable-Stayed Bridge, Unknown Load Factor, Construction Stage Analysis, Time History, Eigen Value
Abstract:

     
The development and application of electronic computers opened up new and practically unlimited possibilities for the exact solution of highly statically indeterminate systems. The main objective of this work is to study the complete analysis of the cable-stayed bridge on the basis of the past research on these types of bridges. A 3-D model is generated using the software MIDAS CIVIL. The present study incorporates the static analysis, time history and construction stage analysis. Static analysis has been performed under the self-weight of the structure. Analysis was performed under post construction stage, where the construction of the complete structure is considered to be completed in single day. Construction stage analysis is performed to understand the variation in bending moments, cable forces, displacements etc. during the construction of the bridge. The detailed report including the methodology with the necessary data, results and conclusions has explained below. By analyzing a simple structural system, the procedure using the analysis program MIDAS Civil is illustrated. The generation of the model for the finished dead stage analysis is illustrated in detail, including the boundary conditions and variations in loading. The optimization method of unknown load factor is used to determine the cable forces to achieve an ideal state. The maximum cable forces are proved to be in the allowable limits. The obtained results revealed that the method presented indeed leads to optimal structural performance for the cable-stayed bridge in particular, and might be a useful reference for the design of other similar bridges.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012008
Title: Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emission of Jatropha Esters and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid in DI Compression Ignition Engine
Authors: V. Palvannan and Dr.K. Balagurunathan
Keywords: Alternative Fuel, Biodiesel Production, Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, CNSL, Engine Emissions, Fuel Testing, IC Engine Performance, Renewable fuel, Transesterification
Abstract:

  Internal combustion (IC) engines are the power horses of the modern world. Dwindling fossil fuel reserves  and increasing demand necessitates  exploration of new alternative fuels which are renewable in nature.  Jatropha methyl esters are well established as diesel engine fuels but jatropha biodiesel is two to three times costlier than diesel fuel as on today. This research work aims to utilize a cheaper alternative to diesel fuel so that it becomes economically sustainable.
Extensive Research work was conducted by the authors in IC Engines Laboratory to use Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CSNL) which is a cheap byproduct of cashew nut production process and jatropha derived bio diesel as alternative fuels for Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines.The results obtained during the experiments using CNSL upto 30% blends by volume, are compared with jatropha biodiesel from the point of combustion characteristics, emission and brake power output leading to the final conclusion that jatropha has slightly better emission characteristics and CNSL has good power output and emissions comparable to diesel fuel.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012009
Title: Analysis of a SCARA Robot for Pick and Place under a Kinematic Constraint
Authors: P.V.S. Subhashini, G. Venkata Rao and N.V.S. Raju
Keywords: 4-Axes SCARA Robot, Denavit- Hartenberg Notation, Inverse Kinematics, Modeling, Pick-Place, Kinematic Analysis, Kinematic Constraint, Semi-Circular Trajectory Path Planning
Abstract:

   The Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA) robots are extensively utilized for assembling electronic products like PCBs for TVs, mobile phones etc. These robots operate at very high speeds. The SCARA configuration has the main advantage of gravitational load, Coriolis, and centrifugal forces not stressing the structure as much as with a robot with the axes horizontal. This feature is important at high speeds and for high precision and it provides high stiffness to the arm in the vertical direction, and high compliance in the horizontal plane. Thus this configuration is advantageous in the tasks involving assembly.
In this paper, a SCARA robot is modeled using the commercial CAD software. Equations are presented for direct and inverse kinematics for a pick and place operation. The robot is used to pick a mechanical part/assembly from a conveyor and place it on a machine being serviced by the SCARA robot. Results of angular rotations, velocities, acceleration of joints and positions of the end effector are presented. Importance of positioning of the different members of a SCARA robot is highlighted.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012010
Title: Synthesis and Chaterization of Nano SiCp
Authors: S. Krishna Mohan and Dr.S. Ramanathan
Keywords: Atomic Force Microscope, Particle Size Analyzer, Planetary Mill, Silicon Carbide and Synthesis
Abstract:

     Silicon carbide powder (SiCp) was milled in a high energy ball mill in 350 rpm for 8 hrs. The wet milling media was tungsten balls (WC) in chemical compound Toluene (C6H6-CH3).The milled powder then characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) to study topography and particle size analyzer.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012011
Title: Pyramid Shaped Structures Response to Seismic Excitation
Authors: A. Abishek Raj, S. Selva MuthuKumaran, Rojan K. Thomas and Dr.G. Hemalatha
Keywords: Pyramid Shaped Structure, Frame, Truncated Pyramid, Seismic Performance, Modal Analysis and Time History Analysis
Abstract:

     Development in technology has led to the construction of remarkable buildings taller and wider, still the Pyramids are structural wonders constructed thousands of years ago, standing stable, challenging the modern day construction. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the configuration of the pyramid which makes it stable. It was observed that the pyramids were designed with angle of slant walls as 520 and the golden ratio (slant height by base ratio) equal to 1.618. Based on this configuration study a pyramid shaped model was designed in SAP2000 and its seismic performance studied. Five earthquake data namely, Kobe, Northridge, Chi-Chi Taiwan, Cape Mendocino and san Fernando was used to study the seismic behaviour of the pyramid structure. Time history analysis was done and the response of the structure was taken.  To compare the behaviour of the pyramid structure, an ordinary framed structure and a truncated pyramid with slant angle 580 with same base dimensions and height was designed and time history analysis done on the two models using the same earthquake data. The response was observed. It was seen that the pyramid shaped structures performance was better than the other two models.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012012
Title: Experimental Investigations on the Effects of Nano- Additive Blended Diesel Fuel on CI Engine
Authors: T. Pushparaj, CT. Umamaheswari and S. Ramabalan
Keywords: Cerium Oxide Nano Additive, Ci Engine, Emissions Performance
Abstract:

     Diesel engines are widely used for their low fuel consumption and better efficiency. Ever increasing diesel consumption, large outflow of foreign exchange and concern for environment have prompted developing countries like India. Recently, because of increases in crude oil prices, limited resources of fossil oil focus on nano additives in diesel engines. In this study, performance tests were carried out on diesel engine with neat diesel fuel; diesel with 10ppm cerium oxide nanoparticle blend and 30ppm and 50ppm blend with as additive.
The effects of the additive cerium oxide nanoparticles on the engine performance and emissions are studied, and comparisons of the performance of the fuel with and without the additive are also presented. The experimental results revealed a substantial enhancement in the performance and a reduction in harmful emissions.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012013
Title: Real Time, Non-invasive Cerebral Blood Oxygenation Monitoring Device
Authors: S. Anita Rashmi Priscilla, K. Kevin Keerthi Prakash, Dr.S.V. Senthilnathan and S. Gnanavel
Keywords: Haemoglobin, Reflectance, rSO2, Venous Blood
Abstract:

    This paper describes the design of a simple, low-cost microcontroller based cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring device. This device is based on a non-invasive sensor that detects the blood oxygenation related to brain function. It is a reflectance based sensor which consists of IR emitter of wavelength 940 nm and ultrared LED 660nm and a detector. By measuring returned light at from the light source, the hemoglobin oxygen saturation in frontal cortex can be determined. Oxygen saturation is an indicator of oxygen transport in the body. Cerebral or regional oxygen saturation [1] is commonly termed as rSO2.  There are different methods to monitor cerebral blood flow. One of them which has been recently introduced is measurement of cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) with cerebral oximetry, which is noninvasive [9] and easy to use. Since it measures mostly venous blood oxygen saturation and does not require pulsatile signal, it can be used as a measure of global perfusion during cardiac surgery [1].

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012014
Title: Real-Time Image Processing System for Accident Avoidance
Authors: S. Alex David and J. Grace Priyanka
Keywords: Rear-Lamp Detection, Tracking, Vehicle Detection
Abstract:

     Most of the vehicle calamity occurs during dark hours.  This paper describes an analytical system for Vehicle Detecting, Tracking, Distance calculating and alerting the driver at night time. The vehicle lights are the salient visual feature to detect vehicle for the night conditions. Only the Red color channel and Symmetry of rear-lamp pairs are used to detect the rear lamps of the vehicles. RGB and HSV color spaces are used for threshold value calculation. Symmetry checking is performed by cross-correlation. Kalman filter is an approach for tracking, its advantage for the vision tracking is to tolerate small occlusions. Tracking based detection has been introduced and it is used when the symmetry check fails, this improves the robustness of the system in different lighting conditions and road environments. Finally the distance between the host vehicle and the target vehicle is calculated for the operating area. The driver has been alerted if the vehicle is in collision condition.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012015
Title: Deploying Access Control with Audit Management for Web Services based on XACML Standard
Authors: R. Saravanan, A. Sindhuja, M. Kaushik and P. Magesh
Keywords: Access Control, Audit, J2EE, Web Services, XACML
Abstract:

     Web services represent a challenge and an opportunity for organizations wishing to expose product and services offering through Internet. However, any organization using XML and Web Services must ensure that only the users who have right, can sent their appropriate XML content and can access the services.  The eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) has established itself as a solution for controlling access in an interoperable and flexible way. But XACML still suffers from some limitations which impact its ability to support the actual requirements of web services. This paper is an effort to implement the  five important features that an access control system should possess as per the XACML standard and implementing these features to an institution management system through J2EE platform. By doing so, we assure an efficient access control framework for today’s open web service applications.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012016
Title: PLC Function Block ‘Filter_AnalogInput: Checking Analog Input Variability’
Authors: A. Archana Balkrishna Yadav
Keywords: Analog Input, Function Block, PLC
Abstract:

     Implementation of ‘Fiter_AnalogInput: Checking Analog Input Variability’ Function Block for Programmable logic controller which checks variability of a measured analog input variable. It removes spike if any in measured analog input variable. This Function block is a part of library Tool Box in which function blocks which are widely getting used in various applications in various industries are developed.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012017
Title: Embedded LPG Monitoring System for Home Safety
Authors: J. Sunithaa, D. Sushmitha and R. Rajarajan
Keywords: Automatic Gas Refill Booking, Gas Cylinder Monitoring, Gas Leakage Detection and Prevention
Abstract:

    The design of an LPG cylinder monitoring system is proposed for home safety. The system detects the leakage of the LPG and alerts the consumer about the leak and as an emergency measure the system will switch on the exhaust fan and also checks the leakage by shutting off the supply. An added feature of the system is that the approximate consumption is indicated in terms of the total weight This information is used for automatic refill booking. The proposed system makes use of GSM module in order to alert about the gas leakage via an SMS. Whenever the system detects the increase in the concentration of the LPG it immediately alerts by activating an alarm and simultaneously sending message to the specified mobile phones. The exhaust fan is switched on and an LPG safe solenoid valve fitted to the cylinder is given a signal to close avoiding further leakage. The device ensures safety and prevents suffocation and explosion due to gas leakage.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012018

Title: Real Time Automation of Greenhouse Monitoring and Irrigation System Using MODBUS
Authors: K. Shashi Raj, D.K. Nayana, Dr.S. S. Manvi and K. Vivek Raj
Keywords: Embedded Web Server, CDMA, GSM, Modbus Protocol, Greenhouse, Internet, Networked Embedded Systems, TINI
Abstract:

     From the viewpoint of modern control theory, soil-plant-water is concerned with a complicated system. Thus, precision irrigation needs all kinds of advanced techniques to archive high efficiency of water resource. This paper presents an irrigation system, which includes moisture sensor, temperature sensor, light sensor, modbus protocol, RS-485 bus, remote control and distributed control. In particular, authors developed the complete irrigation system, including soil moisture sensor. Hardware and software architecture of embedded web servers is analysed and the experimental results of monitoring and control of laboratory greenhouse is presented. The system also timely updates the conditions of the plants environment timely to the user through SMS using GSM technology. GSM modem can be controlled by standard set of AT (Attention) commands. These commands can be used to control majority of the functions of GSM modem.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012019
Title: Intelligent Identification of Moisture Control of Drying Process in Paper Machine
Authors: C. Karthik, K. Valarmathi and M. Rajalakshmi
Keywords: Drying Process of Paper Machine, System Identification, Artificial Neural Network, T-S Fuzzy Modelling, Hammerstein-Weiner Model
Abstract:

     This paper is focuses modeling of the last part of the paper machine – the drying section. Paper is dried by letting it pass through a series of steam heated group of cylinders and the evaporation is thus performed by the latent heat of vaporization of the steam. By adjusting the set point of the steam pressure controllers to the cylinders we can control the moisture in the paper. There exist several incentives to focus on the performance of the moisture control. The time to perform a grade change is often limited by the moisture then time is directly correlated to economic profit. The process model is identified regularly and the changes in its characteristics are observed periodically.  This method of identification gives a great advantage over the conventional controller tuning methods, which uses the process model at the nominal operating conditions. A number of structures are available for modeling a process system. Model for the drying process of Paper industry is established based on gathering 1000 groups of 2500 real-time sample data. Based on the collection of data, that was adapted to both the conventional and intelligent modelling process. Finally the suitable model is tuned with the suitable controller for optimal control of the drying process.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012020
Title: Energy Conservation in Smart Home using LabVIEW
Authors: N. Bhavna, Janani Prasad and S. Janani
Keywords: Home Automation, Energy Conservation, IR Sensor, Energy Measurement Module, LabVIEW
Abstract:

     Our project aims at building Home Automation system based on the availability of smart home network for devices to communicate. In this system we will monitor the energy consumption of appliances such as fan and light between two buildings and a comparison is performed between these two wherein the output is displayed using Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineer’s Workbench (LabVIEW) software. The occupancy level is checked using IR sensor and the devices are automatically switched off in the absence of any human presence. The Energy consumption of each device can be measured using Energy Measurement module. In case of high consumption of energy by devices, they will be controlled using specific circuits. Hence the energy conservation is accomplished by efficient use of energy and reducing the wastage of electricity.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012021
Title: Study on Different Approaches to Manage Identity
Authors: K. Raghavendra and Sumith Nireshwalya
Keywords: OpenID, Kereberos, Cardspace, Liberty Alliance, Diameter Protocol, Identity
Abstract:

     In order to offer personalized services to consumers, service providers need to be able to distinguish their customers. Therefore the customer's identity is established and linked to the services provided. This paper will introduce different approaches to identity management. It will compare the existing techniques and evaluate it in different aspects. This paper also suggests an innovative method to manage identities in web applications which is based on already existing protocol diameter.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012022
Title: Design and Implementation of Voice Control System for Wireless Home Automation based on MFCC
Authors: M. Anjugam
Keywords: Feature Extraction, Feature Matching, Home Automation, MFCC Algorithm, Speech Recognition, Vector Quantization
Abstract:

     This paper presents the design and implementation of a voice control system for wireless home automation networks. Home automation industry is growing rapidly. This is fuelled by the need to provide supporting systems for the people, especially the elders, blinds and people with disabilities. The overall design of a wireless home automation system (WHAS) which has been built and implemented. In this system one or more voice recognition modules have been added to the wireless networks. The automation centres on recognition of voice commands & uses zigbee communication modules. The voice command is a person independent. The voice sample is stored in database along with the function key. The voice received is processed and extract feature of the voice and find the matching sample from the database. The voice is processed and then the feature is extracted based on the MFCC algorithm. The voice recognition system contains two main methods as follows, “Feature Extraction” and “Feature Matching”. The matched samples generate the corresponding function key and transmit through zigbee module. The receiver is attached to the microcontroller. The microcontroller then processes the received data and switches the respective appliance.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012023
Title: Smash – Smart Medical Automated System Handheld Device with Wireless Technology
Authors: Khalid Parveez, H. Rekha and Dr.M. Siddappa
Keywords: ECG Monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, Android Smart Phone, Mobile Barcode Decoder
Abstract:

     Recent developments in off-the-shelf wireless embedded computing boards and the increasing need for efficient health monitoring systems, fueled by the increasing number of patients, has prompted R&D professionals to explore better health monitoring systems that are both mobile and cheap. Following this approach, an Android™ smart phone device is proposed as a mobile monitoring terminal to observe and analyze ECG (electrocardiography) waveforms from wearable ECG devices in real time under the coverage of a wireless sensor network (WSN). The exploitation of WSN in healthcare is able to substitute the complicated wired technology, moving healthcare away from a fixed location setting. As an extension to the monitoring scheme, medicine care is taken into consideration by utilizing the mobile phone as a barcode decoder, to verify and assist out-patients in the medication administration process, providing a better and more comprehensive healthcare service. We show a design for a WSN emergency response system using temperature sensors and voltage sensors as a proof of concept. We compare the performance of our scheme with the scheme proposed by Shyr-Kuen Chen et al. in [2].

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012024
Title: An Approach to Review on Automatic Image Annotation: A Survey
Authors: Hemlata Sahu and Hitesh Gupta
Keywords: Automatic Image Annotation, Annotation Approaches, Current Research, Image Retrieval and Image Search
Abstract:

     This paper provides an introduction to Automatic image annotation and also will discuss the literature survey on various approaches for automatic annotation on digital images. Which gives overview of Automatic image annotation is used to extract meaningful information with meaningful keywords and to develop significant relationships among variables stored in large data set. Automatic image annotation is the process of assigning keywords to digital images depending on the content information. Automatically assigning keywords to images is of great interest as it allows one to index, retrieve, and understand large collections of image data. Many techniques have been proposed for image annotation in the last decade that gives reasonable performance on standard datasets. There are some researches on image annotation and produced very good knowledge theoretically or technically and lead to produce such promising surveys. However, most of these works fail for complex models and requires subsequent training. Summary and analysis of some of the approaches have been used as references to produce a framework in designing an automatic image annotation model.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012025
Title: Designing of Boot loader For Windows Embedded CE6.0 with its implementation based on SD CARD and EBOOT
Authors: Harshitha.K.Raj, Dr.M. Siddappa and P. Satish Kumar
Keywords: Boot loader, SDCARD, EBOOT, WINDOWS CE 6.0 Operating System, Embedded System
Abstract:

     As various applications have been developed for different intention in Embedded System the boot loader plays important role in system, especially the embedded systems which are widely used in different field. Windows CE6.0 is the operating system used that assorts with the device drivers, the platform for applications and the core of Embedded System. The Boot loader is a program that loads the main operating system. Boot loader is a piece of code that runs before any operating system running. It is mainly to initialize hardware, boot the system, and download programs into RAM. The SDCARD boot and Ethernet Boot (EBOOT) are the most common known boot loader. In this paper, we present a two ways of loading process of operating system namely SDCARD Boot and EBOOT.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012026
Title: Advanced Transaction with Smart Security
Authors: Haibatti Vikram and A. Marikirthima
Keywords: ADO.NET, AJAX, IIS, CLR, CTS, MSIL
Abstract:

     Over the past few years, the world has seen an explosion of new wireless device, such as cell phone, pagers, and personal digital assistant (pads) , which enable user to browse web sites at any time from any location. Online services provide access to information, communication with the bank. Many banks are offering another form of the banking system known as interactive banking. This is generally refers to methods that allow their customers to conduct some of their bank business over the phone or with a PC. The project is aimed at developing an online Internet banking with high security. This project is developed in KANNADA language so the user of the online banking can also choose KANNADA language. The project is developed to meet the needs of millions of customers to be aware of the essential facts to help them by providing services. The system provides a user-friendly interface that Interacts with the Customers needs and provides the services to the customers. Online banking with smart security service gives user account information and capabilities from the mobile phone and to their mail at a true” anywhere, anytime, anyhow convenience. This system can be used to automate the workflow of Account Details and Online Transaction.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012027
Title: Range Test and Measurement of Pressure Exerted on the Walls of Water Reservoir of an Automated Hydroelectric Power Plant
Authors: K.R. Sreejith, P.S. Arjun, Gokul Gopal, Nikhil K Joshi and Nair Sruthi Prakash
Keywords: Hydroelectric Power Plant, Pressure Sensor, Range, Water Reservoir, Zigbee
Abstract:

     In this paper, we are presenting the elaborated and extended version of our previous work on automation of hydro electric power plant using wireless SCADA. In our previous work, we developed a wirelessly controlled model of a hydro electric power plant which can transmit generated power and measured water level of the reservoir to a central control station. Now, we are employing a new method to estimate the pressure exerted on the walls of the reservoir and also performing the range test of the wireless SCADA.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012028
Title: Sonification of Face
Authors: Vaishakh Patil, Mohammed Qassim Akhtar, Abhijit Parab and Aisha Fernandes
Keywords: Face Detection, Denseoptical Flow, Expression Analysis, Haar Classifier Cascade, Lucas-Kanadeoptical Flow Algorithm, Sound Generation
Abstract:

     In this paper, the integration of face segments detection and extraction, and facial expression recognition and Sonification are discussed. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that utilizes haar classifiers detecting face followed by dividing face into Regions of interest (ROI) to extract facial segments. Furthermore, in this project, we propose a statistical approach to process the optical flow data to obtain the overall value for the respective feature region in the face. This approach has eliminated the requirement of accurate identification of the feature boundary. Optical flow computations are utilized to identify the directions and the amount of motions in image sequences that are caused by human facial expressions. These calculated values are then compared with the values from table to estimate the expression .Furthermore after getting the expression; these are then converted to sound by mapping functions. Sounds are generated by simple MIDI tunes based on instruments assigned to each region.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012029
Title: Text Reader for Konkani Language
Authors: Shradha Mohanan, Sonam Salkar, Gaurav Naik, Nilesh Fal Dessai and Siddhi Naik
Keywords: Phoneme, Grapheme, eSpeak, Synthesis, TTS
Abstract:

     Text to Speech conversion and Speech Synthesis are two major areas in which lot of research work is currently carried out. In these areas the product design are majorly useful to develop Human Computer Interfaces. In the present era of Human Computer Interaction the visually impaired community in India are deprived of technologies that could help them interact with the sighted world, develop their educational infrastructure and consequently join the mainstream life through employment opportunities. This can be achieved by developing an audio interface using a text to speech system as the basic backbone. . Due to this the products are becoming major tool to inculcate the IT learning in rural part of India. We have emphasized on an Indian Language Speech (Konkani) Interface to be used in different applications that would empower the visually impaired to communicate.
The main component of a text to speech processing system is speech synthesis. Speech synthesis is a process in which input text is analysed, understood and then rendered into audible speech (Text To Speech (TTS) Conversion). It is the text processing unit that accepts an arbitrary text and produces appropriate sequence of phonemic units. These phonemic units are realized by a speech generation component either by synthesis from parameters or by selection of a unit from a large speech corpus.
A number of tools and resources are developed for text to speech processing.
A lot of research is carried out for development of TTS systems for Indian Languages. There are a few text to speech system designed for Indian languages like Dhvani, Vani, etc which are capable of generating intelligible speech for many Indian languages (such as hindi, tamil, urdu etc.) excluding Konkani.
This paper contains survey of the tool eSpeak, used for its mplementation. The paper presented describes the current state of Text to Speech Conversion and Speech Synthesis techniques and issues regarding Konkani language.

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Issue: July2012
DOI: AA072012030
Title: An Architectural Framework for RFID Based Student Tracking System
Authors: R. Raju, B. Dhinesh Kumar, K.G. Surendar and R. Vimal
Keywords: Authentication, Graphical User Interface, Radio Frequency Identification, Tracking system
Abstract:

     Embedded technologies are fast growing and used worldwide since it reduces man power and it produces efficient results without human intrusion. RFID is a new amazing technology and it plays a major role in embedded system. RFID is one of the most exciting technologies that satisfy the human by increasing profitability and increases efficiency. It is a replacement of Bar code since RFID has the ability to scan multiple items and it doesn’t need line of sight. They are easy to implement than the wired technology and continuous monitoring helps in better understanding.
This paper describes about an architectural framework for implementing a Student Tracking system over a wide range effectively via RFID technology. This system is designed specifically for the purpose of tracking the students inside the college as well as Smart Attendance Maintenance without the intervention of the staff using RFID. This system not only consist of a framework but also it contains the various steps to be done for implementing it. This system consist of both hardware as well as software components. It is designed to track the movement of the students within the college campus as well as automatic Attendance monitoring without human intervention using RFID technology. The hardware architecture consists of an RFID active tag, RFID transceiver, systems interconnected and database server.. The PC can be connected to the transceiver to read the tag id .Software part consist of an Application Programming Interface (API) that handles and analyses the data, an user-friendly GUI and a database that stores as well as retrieves all the student information.

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