Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Evolution in the Area of Smart Load Frequency Control Using Passino Technique

Sushil Prashar, Gagandeep Sharma


Large power systems are normally divided into control areas based on the principle of coherency. The coherent areas are interconnected through tie lines which are used for contractual energy exchange between areas and provide inter area support during abnormal condition. A mismatch in the real power balance affects primarily the system frequency but leaves the bus voltage magnitude unaffected. The problem of real power balance in a power system is termed as smart load frequency control problem. The present work deals with the optimization of integral controller gain of two area thermal reheat system with generation rate constraint, first with classical optimization method and then with Passion technique. Comparison of convergence characteristics of Passino and classical techniques reveals that Passino is quite faster in optimization, leading to reduction in computational burden, giving rise to minimal computer resource utilization.


Load Frequency Control, Passino Technique, Real Power Mismatch, Tie-Line Power

Full Text:



Concordia and L.K. Kirchmayer, “ Tie-line power frequency control of electric power system,” AIEE Trans III-A,vol.72,pp. 562-572, June 1953.

Concordia and L.K. Kirchmayer, “Tie-line power frequency control of electric power system Part II,” AIEE Trans III-A, vol.73,pp. 133-146, April 1954.

L.K. Kirchmayer, “ Economic control of interconnected system” John Wily, Newyork, 1959.

J.Quazza, “ Non interactive controls of interconnected electric power system,” IEEE Trans. On power apparatus and system, Vol.85, pp 392-402, April 1966.

Elgerd & Fosha, “Optimum megawatt frequency control of multi area electric energy system,” IEEE Trans. on power apparatus and system, Vol.89, pp 556-563, April 1970.

Elgerd & Fosha, “The megawatt frequency control problem-A new approach via optimal control theory,” IEEE Trans. on power apparatus and system, Vol.89, pp 563-577, April 1970.

N.Cohn, “Technique for improving bulk power transfer on interconnected systems,” IEEE Trans. on power apparatus and system, Vol.91, pp 1158-1165, April 1972.

J.Nanda & B.L. Kaul, “AGC of an interconnected power system,” IEEE proceedings, Vol.125, pp 385-390, May 1978.

Kothari, Satsangi & Nanda, “Sampled data AGC of interconnected reheat thermal systems considering generation rate constraints,” IEEE Trans. on power apparatus and system, Vol.100, pp 2334-2342, May 1981.

O.I Elgerd, “Electric energy systems theory-An Introduction,” Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Ltd. New Delhi.

J.Nanda, M.L Kothari & Satsangi, “ Automatic Generation Control of an interconnected hydro thermal system in continuous and discrete modes considering generation rate constraints” IEEE vol.130, pp 17-27, January 1983.

J.Nanda, M.L Kothari, D.P Kothari & D Das, “ Discrete mode Automatic Generation Control of two area thermal system with new area control error” IEEE vol.PWRS 4,pp 730-738, May 1989.

J.Nanda, M.L Kothari, L.Hari, “ Optimum selection of speed regulation parameter for Automatic Generation Control in discrete mode considering generation rate constraint” IEEE vol.138, September 1991.

P. Kundur, “ Power system stability and control”. Newyork: Mc Graw Hill 1994 pp 418-448.

G.A Chown & R.C Hartman, “ Design and experience with fuzzy logic controller for AGC” IEEE vol.13, Issue 3, pp 965-970, August 1998.

Passino K.M, “Biomimicry of bacterial forging for distributed optimization and control,” IEEE vol.32, Issue 3,pp. 52-67, June 2002.

Passino K.M, “Biomimicry of social forging for distributed optimization models,” JOTA,vol.115 No.3,pp. 603-623, December 2002.

J.Nanda, J.S Sakram, “ AGC with fuzzy logic controller considering GRC”, Advances in power system control , operation and management 2003. Sixth national conference pp 770-775.

Ghoshal & Goswami, “Application of GA based optimal integral gains in fuzzy based active power frequency control of non heat & reheat thermal generating systems,” EPSR 67 (2003) .

Mishra S, “A hybrid least square fuzzy bacterial forging strategy for harmonic estimation-Evolutionary computation,” IEEE Trans. Vol.9, February 2005.

Nanda J, Mangla A, S. Suri, “ Some new findings on Automatic Load Frequency Control of an interconnected hydro thermal system with conventional controllers” IEEE trans.vol.21, pp 187-194, March 2006.

Nanda & Mangla, “ AGC of an interconnected hydro thermal system using conventional integral and fuzzy logic controller” IEEE International conference September 2005.

M.A Abido, “ Optimal design of power system stabilizer using PSO” IEEE vol.17, no.3, pp 406-413, September 2002.

Elyas Rakshani, Javad Sadeh, “ Simulation of Two-Area AGC system in a competitive environment using reduced order observer method” October 2008.

Boesack, Marwala & Nelwamondo, “ Application of GA fuzzy controller design to AGC”IEEE 25th August 2010.

G.K Joshi, “ AGC of Power using genetic algorithm” IEEE November 2010.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.