Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Gradient Based Optimal Power Flow

P. Ramachandran, Dr. R. Senthil


The electric power industries are restructured to meet the growing load demand. The process of restructuring leads the industry into competition. The wheeling transactions are allowed to carry out the power transfer between the power producers and customers. The generators are rescheduled to meet the change in load demand and wheeling transactions. In this paper, the gradient method is used to determine the generator operating conditions under various load scenarios. The proposed gradient (steepest descent) based algorithm is demonstrated on the Indian Utility System.


Optimal Power Flow, Gradient Method, Power Producers and Wheeling Transactions

Full Text:



Yog Raj Sood, Narayana Prasad Padhy and Gupta H.O.,“Wheeling of power under deregulated environment of power system – A bibliographical survey”, IEEE Transactions on Power systems, Vol.17, No.3, 2002, pp. 870-878.

Wood A.I. and Wollenberg B.F., Power Generation Operation and Control, John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

Abido M.A., “Optimal power flow using Tabu Search algorithm”, Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol.30, No.5, 2002, pp. 469-483.

Basu M.,“Fuel constrained Economic Emission Dispatch using Hopfield Neural Networks”, Electric Power Systems Research, Vol.63, No.1, 2002, pp. 51-57.

Paranjothi S.R.,and Anburaja K.,“Optimal power flow using refined Genetic Algorithm”, Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol.30, 2002, pp.1055-1063.

Yang H.T., Yang P.C., and Huang C.L.,“Evolutionary programming based Economic Dispatch for units with Non-smooth Fuel cost functions”, IEEE Transactions on Power systems, Vol.11, No.1, 1996, pp.112-118.

Lai L.L., and Ma J.J., “Application of Evolutionary Programming to Reactive Power Planning – Comparison with Non-Linear Programming Approach”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.12, No.1, 1997, pp.198-207.

Wong K.P., and Yuryevich J., “Evolutionary-programming based algorithm for environmentally constrained Economic Dispatch”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.13, No.2, 1998, pp.301 – 306.

Yuryevich J., and Wong K.P., “Evolutionary Programming based Optimal Power Flow”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.14, No.4, 1999, pp.1245 – 1250.

Gent M.R., and Lamont John Wm.,“Minimum – Emission Dispatch”, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.90, 1971, pp.2650-2660.

Nanda J., Kothari D.P., and Srivastava S.C., “New Optimal Power-dispatch algorithm using Fletcher’s quadratic programming method”, IEE Proceedings, Pt.C., Vol.136, No.3, 1989, pp.153-161.

Nanda J., Hari L., and Kothari M.L., “Economic emission load dispatch with line flow constraints using a Classical technique”, IEE Proceedings, Pt.C., Vol.141, No.1, 1994, pp.1- 10.

Chen J.F., and Chen S.D., “Multiobjective power dispatch with line flow constraints using the fast Newton-Raphson method”, IEEE Transactions on Energy conversion, Vol.12, No.1, 1996, pp.86-93.

Hota P.K., Chakrabarti R., and Chattopadhyay P.K.,. “Economic Emission load dispatch with line flow constraints using Sequential quadratic programming technique”, Institution of Engineers (India) Vol.81, 2000, pp.21 – 25.

Kulkarni P.S., Kothari A.G., and Kothari D.P., “Combined Economic and Emission dispatch using improved back propagation Neural Network”, Electric Machines and Power Systems,Vol.28, 2000, pp.31-44.

Tamilnadu Electricity Board Statistics at a Glance – 2008-2009, compiled by Planning Wing of Tamilnadu Electricity Board, Chennai, India.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.