Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

An Investigation of 2 n Direction Geographical Traceback Using Simulation of IP Traceback Strategies

S. Karthik, Dr. V. P. Arunachalam, Dr. T. Ravichandran


DoS / DDoS(Distributed Denial of Service) attacks deny regular, internet services accessed by legitimate users, either by blocking the services completely, or by disturbing it completely, so as to cause customer baulking. Several traceback schemes are available to mitigate these attacks. The simulation approach also can be used to test the performing effects of different marking schemes in large-scale DDoS attacks. Based on the simulation and evaluation results, more efficient and effective algorithms, techniques and procedures to combat these attacks may be developed. DGT8, directional geographical trackback scheme, with 8 directions is one of them. Having a limited set of 8 directions, DGT8 may not work for routers with more than 8 interfaces. In this paper, we propose M-DGT i.e DGT 16, a 16 directional geographical traceback scheme having all the advantages of DGT. The 16 directions, though not having exactly equal interface, have nearly equal measures, and are identified using a novel scheme of Segment Direction Ratios (SDR). The SDR concept and the associated marking scheme allow the victim to defend against DDoS attacks independent of its ISP and also the generalization to DGT2n, having 2n directions (n>4).


DoS, DDoS, DGT (Directed Geographical traceback), IP traceback, SDR (Segment Direction Ratio)

Full Text:



Yaar etc., FTT : Fast Internet Trackback., IEEE INFOCOM’05, Miami,Florida, Mar. 2005.

Al – Duwairi B., etc., Topology Based Packet Marking, IEEE int. Conf.Computer comm.. and Networks (ICCN) Oct. 2004.

Basheer Al-Duwairi etc., Novel Hybrid Schemes Employing Packet Marking and bagging for IP Traceback, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distribution Systems, Vol 17. No5. Pp 403 – 418, May 2006.

Meadows. “A formal framework and evaluation method for network denial of service.” In Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop, June 1999. (8 and 10)

Cisco. “Strategies to Protect Against Distributed Denial of Service Attacks.”

Cisco. “Strategies to Protect Against Distributed Denial of Service Attacks.”

Computer Incident Advisory Capability. Network Intrusion Detector Overview.

D.X. Song, and A. Perrig, Advanced and Authenticated Marking Schemes for IP Traceback, IEEE INFOCOM’01 Anchorage AK, AP 2001, pp 878 – 886.

S. Savage, D. Wetherall, A. Karlin, and T. Anderson. Practical Network Support for IP Traceback. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2000,August 2000.

S. Savage, D. Wetherall, etc., Practical Network Support for IP Traceback IEEE / ACM transactions. Networking Vol 9 – pp 226 – 237,Jun 2001.

V. Padmanaban and L.Subramanian., An Investigation of Geographic Mapping Technologies for Internet Hosts, ACM SIGCOMM01. San Diego., 2001, pp. 173 – 185.

Zhiqiang Gao and Nirwan Ansari. “Directed Geographical Traceback”,IEEE, transactions. IEEE paper 221-224, 2005.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.