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CiiT International Journal of Networking and Communication Engineering
Print: ISSN 0974 9713 & Online: ISSN 0974 9616

20082009 2010 2011 2012 2013
   April May June July August September October November

Issue : September 2009
DOI: NCE092009001
Title: Algorithm for Cryptanalysis with Application to Data Encryption Standard
Authors: Ravikumar .K, Dr. Kannammal .A and Jameel .S .A
Keywords: Data Encryption standard, Encryption algorithm, Genetic algorithm.
Abstract:
        A random search through a finite but large key space is not usually an acceptable cryptanalysis approach. The focus of this work is on the use of a genetic algorithm (GA) to conduct a directed search in a key space. The structure of Lucifer was significantly altered and since the design rationale was never made public and the secret key size was reduced from 128-bit to 56-bits this initially resulted in controversy, and some distrust among the public. In this paper, a new method has been developed for the first time to break DES like examples. These examples include both DES with eight rounds. The performance of the proposed method, as such, is considerably faster than exhaustive search and differential cryptanalysis. Therefore, it can be directly applied to a variety of DES like systems instead of the current techniques. Here, a Genetic Algorithm, GA, is proposed for the cryptanalysis is of DES like systems to find out the underlying key. The genetic algorithm approach is adopted, for obtaining the exact key by forming an initial population of keys that belong to the key subspace. In the proposed algorithms, the premature convergence could be avoided by dynamic variation of control parameters that can affect the fitness function. DES uses a 56-bit encryption key. The key size was apparently dictated by the memory and processing constraints imposed by a single-chip implementation of the algorithm for DES. The key itself is specified with 8 bytes, but one bit of each byte is used as a parity check.

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Issue : September 2009
DOI: NCE092009002
Title: Virtualization: A Foundation for Cloud Computing
Authors: Dr. Manoj Devare, Mehdi Sheikhalishahi and Dr. Lucio Grandinetti
Keywords: cloud computing, green computing, virtualization, xen..
Abstract:
        This paper review on the cloud computing technology. The virtualization is major concern in the clouds. The virtualization using different hypervisors such as Xen, KVM and Danali are described. The overview on the current cloud providers and ongoing open source research activities are described. The analysis of cost of investment and savings due to virtualization, makes it very important for many business policies. The saving and its relation with clouds is done using apcmedia tool. The positive results are very interesting and motivating to find out relation between cloud computing and green computing. The results are fine indication that, the cloud computing moving towards the green computing.

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Issue : September 2009
DOI: NCE092009003
Title: Qualitative Comparison of 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional directed geographical IP traceback with generalization to n directions
Authors: Rajiv Kannan .A, Dr. Duaraiswamy .K and Sasikala .E
Keywords: DDoS, DoS, DGT (Directed Geographical traceback), DRA (Direction Ratio Algorithm), DRS (Direction Ratio Set), IP traceback ,SDR (Segment Direction Ratio).
Abstract:
        Several IP traceback schemes have been proposed to trace DoS/DDoS attacks that abuse the internet. A mechanism for IP traceback based on the geographic information rather than the traditional IP address information was proposed, for 8 directions is a planar environment. Extension of this two dimensional directed geographical traceback to 2n [n≥4] directions is also available. In this paper, the DGT scheme has been compared from 2 dimensional to 3 dimensional while considering all routers from the surface of the earth to the atmosphere with reality. The 2 dimension , though not having exactly equal interface, have nearly equal measures, and are identified using a novel scheme of Segment Direction Ratios (SDR). The SDR concept and the associated marking scheme allow the victim to defend against DDoS attacks independent of its ISP and also the generalization to DGT2n, having 2n directions (n>4). All the advantages (like robustness, fast convergence, independence etc.,) of the two dimensional DGT are available in the three dimensional scheme as well. The basic assumptions about the traffic and the network are the same.

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Issue : September 2009
DOI: NCE092009004
Title: IPv6 over Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Vivek S. Deshpande and Vasundhara V. Ghate
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, IPv4, IPv6, MEMS, IEEE 802.15.4, 6LoWPAN.
Abstract:
        This paper proposes the use of IPv6 over the newly emerging WSN(Wireless Sensor Networks).The advancement in the integration between large number of small embedded system processors, micro sensors and wireless interfaces based on MEMS(Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) have led to the emergence of ‘WSN’.The range of application areas of WSN are increasing day by day. Some applications might place the requirement of connecting the sensor nodes to Internet, which will help the sensor nodes to be accessed from anywhere around the world. This requirement led to the idea of using the basic IP technology for the same .But, IPv4 protocol is already on a verge of saturation and has the limitation of very small address space which can be a bottleneck in our aim of this topic,Therefore,we can directly shift our focus towards the future of IP technology-IPv6 protocol as it provides a huge address space and features like auto-configuration which will help in configuring the large numbers of sensor nodes automatically without any naming constraints. For implementing the same we have to take into consideration the basic standard for WSNs-IEEE 802.15.4 as our aim to carry out the IPv6 packets transmission over IEEE 802.15.4.There are a number of differences and incompatibilities between the two networks. So using 6LoWPAN we can tackle this differences using different methodologies as supported by 6LoWPAN.Lastly we also have put light on some other design issues like memory management and security related to actually implementing ‘IPv6 Over WSN’.

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Issue : September 2009
DOI: NCE092009005
Title: Lingering Bandwidth Estimation to Optimize the Resource Utilization for Mobile Adhoc Networks
Authors: Suganya .S and Dr. Palaniammal .S
Keywords: Ad hoc networks, Available bandwidth estimation, IEEE 802.11, Quality of service.
Abstract:
        In wireless networks, to provide quality of service by means of resource allocation the protocols need to be evaluate a lingering bandwidth estimation for further allocation However, there is no standardized mechanism or method has been proposed to accurately evaluate the amount of available resources on a given channel. Such an evaluation would, lead to optimize bandwidth utilization for applications of mobile adhoc networks like multimedia dataflow .We proposes a new techniques to estimate a bandwidth of a node in IEEE 802.11 based mobile adhoc networks. We show by simulations that our technique provides We show by simulations that our technique provides an accurate estimation of the lingering bandwidth on wireless links in many ad hoc configurations and an efficient delivery ratio & reduce delay time in the environment.

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Issue : September 2009
DOI: NCE092009006
Title: Providing QOS for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
Authors: Boomarani Malany .A and Dr. Chandrasekaran .R .M
Keywords: Mobile ad-hoc network, Quality of service, Streaming, delay, jitter, reactive, proactive and hybrid protocols.
Abstract:
        In recent days, Mobile ad hoc network is an emerging trend and it has to face many challenges and issues. QOS (Quality of service) is a challenging prerequisite in mobile ad hoc networks. Mobile ad-hoc network is an infrastructure-less, self-healing and self-configurable network. Because of these reasons mobile ad-hoc network has to face many important QOS issues. This paper approaches a new proposal for providing quality of service in mobile ad-hoc network and dissects their performance. This paper based on the new proposal of Mixed Routing Protocol [MRP] was designed for providing quality of service in mobile ad-hoc network. The theme behind this proposal was the reactive protocol was set as background protocol and the reactive, proactive and hybrid protocols were mixed in the same topology. This concept provides the advantages of the three routing protocols of reactive, proactive and hybrid routing which produce tremendous performance for the same scenarios. The some of the metrics which accomplish the quality of service requirements like packet delivery fraction, throughput, average end to end delay and average jitter were calculated. This proposed work delivers 95% in efficiency. During simulation the number of events and total mobility were noted. We validate the scheme by simulating under different speed utilizations with IEEE 802. 11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) ad-hoc mode. The performance of the proposed scheme also discussed.

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