Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN), Architecture, Routing Protocols, Simulation and Modeling Tools, Localization, Security Issues and Some Novel Trends

S. EL- Rabaie, D. Nabil, R. Mahmoud, Mohammed A. Alsharqawy


Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are becoming popular everyday due to their important role in different applications, such as offshore search and underwater monitoring. Underwater wireless sensor networks face unique conditions. Therefore, particular routing protocols are needed to route the packets from a source to a destination. Moreover, numerous UWSN’s applications require deploying the security issue; which routing protocols don’t take in consideration. A survey on UWSN architectural view and the routing protocols used for UWSNs are given in this paper. The routing protocols studied and compared with respect to packet delivery ratio, packet delay, energy consumption. Priority and drawbacks of each routing protocol are listed. In addition, a survey of the security issue for UWSNs is presented, and the security requirements in order to secure communication medium in this environment are listed


WSN, UWSN, Application, Design, Geographical Routing, Security.

Full Text:



Dina M. Ibrahim, Mohmoud M. Fahmy, Tarek E. ElTobely, and ElSayed A. Sallam, “Modelling and Performance Enhancement of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks by Petri Nets”, Thesis submitted to the Engineering Faculty, Tanta University, for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering, 2014.

Jian S., Jin W., Jianwei Z. and Shunfeng W., “A Comparative Study on Routing Protocols in Underwater Sensor Networks”, Advanced Technologies, Embedded and Multimedia for Human-centric Computing, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 260, Springer Science & Business Media Dordrecht, 2014.

M.Kiranmayi1and Dr. Kathirvel Ayyaswamy; ‘Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Design Issues of the Network Layer - A Review’, International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering Research (IJETER), Vol. 3 No.1, January 27, 2015, pp. 05 – 11.

Mukesh Beniwal and Rishipal Singh, ‘Localization Techniques and Their Challenges in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks’, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 5 (3) , 2014, 4706-4710.

Bhanu K., “Muti-Metric Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks”, a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of master of science, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi Corpus Christi, Texas, 2011.

Ahmed M., “Iraqi Rivers Pollution Monitoring System Based on Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks”, a thesis submitted to the Computer Engineering Department University of Technology in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in computer engineering, 2013.

Salvador Climent, Juan Vicente Capella, Nirvana Meratnia and Juan José Serrano, ‘Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture’, Sensors 2012, 12, pp.704-731.

MohsinMurad, Adil A. Sheikh, Muhammad AsifManzoor, EmadFelemban, and SaadQaisar, ‘A Survey on Current Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Applications’, International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 1, February 2015, pp.51-56.

Parul Garg and Sandeep Waraich, ‘ Parametric Comparative Analysis of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Routing Protocols’, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol.116 No. 11, April 2015, pp. 29-35.

Sihem Souiki, Maghnia Feham, Mohamed Feham and Nabila Labraoui, ‘Geographic Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey’International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN) Vol. 6, No. 1, February 2014, pp.69-87.

Kifayat Ullah Jan and Zahoor Jan, ‘Survey on Routing Protocols for Under Water Sensor Networks’, Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE), Vol. 16, Issue 1, Ver. VI, Feb. 2014, pp. 44-46.

Xie P., Cui J., and Lao L, “Vector-based Forwarding Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks”, International conference on networking (IFIP networking), 2006.

Nicolaou N., See A., Xie P., Cui J., and Maggiorini D., “Improving the Robustness of Location-based Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks”, Proc. Of the OCEANS’07, Europe, IEEE, 2007.

Xie P., Zhou Z., Peng Z., Cui J.-H., and Shi Z , “Void Avoidance in Three-dimensional Mobile Underwater Sensor Networks”, Proc. of the 4th international conference of wireless algorithms, system, and applications (WASA ), USA, 2009.

Bo W., Yong-mei L, and Zhigang J, “ES-VBF: An Energy Saving Routing Protoco”, In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering, 2012.

Dina M. Ibrahim, Mohmoud M. Fahmy, Tarek E. ElTobely, and ElSayed A. Sallam, “Enhancing the Vector-Based Forwarding Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Clustering Approach”, The Tenth International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Communications (ICWMC), 2014.

Yonca B., Nirvana M. and Aylin K., “A Comparative View of Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proc. of the OCEANS’11, Spain, IEEE, 2011.

Mari C.,” Securing Underwater Wireless Communication Networks”, IEEE Wireless Communications, 2011.

Muhammad Ayaz, Imran Baig, Azween Abdullah and Ibrahima Faye, ‘A survey on routing techniques in underwater wireless sensor networks’, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2011, pp. 1-20.

Thumpi.R, Manjula R.B and SunilkumarS.Manvi, ‘A Survey on Routing Protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks’, International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), Vol.2, Issue.2, May 2013, pp. 170-175.

V.P. Dhviya, R. Arthi, “Analysis of Simulation Tools for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology (IJCSET), 2014.

P. Xie, Z. Zhou , Z. Peng , H. Yan , T. Hu , J. Cui , Z. Shi , Y. Fei& S. Zhou “Aqua-Sim: An NS-2 Based Simulator for Underwater Sensor Networks”, in proc. Of MITS/IEEE oceans conference, 2009.

K. Jensen, L. Kristensen and L. Wells, “Coloured Petri Nets and CPN Tools for Modelling and Validation of Concurrent Systems”, International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), Springer-Verlage, 2007.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.