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### Optimation of Economic Order Quantity in Inventory Management Inventory Model

#### Abstract

EOQ applies only when demand for a product is constant over the year and each new order is delivered in full when inventory reaches zero. There is a fixed cost for each order placed, regardless of the number of units ordered; an order is assumed to contain only 1 unit. There is also a cost for each unit held in storage, commonly known as holding cost, sometimes expressed as a percentage of the purchase cost of the item. While the EOQ formulation is straightforward there are factors such as transportation rates and quantity discounts to consider in actual application. We want to determine the optimal number of units to order so that we minimize the total cost associated with the purchase, delivery, and storage of the product. The required parameters to the solution are the total demand for the year, the purchase cost for each item, the fixed cost to place the order for a single item and the storage cost for each item per year. Note that the number of times an order is placed will also affect the total cost, though this number can be determined from the other parameters. In presence of a strategic customer, who responds optimally to discount schedules, the design of an optimal quantity discount scheme by the supplier is complex and has to be done carefully. This is particularly so when the demand at the customer is itself uncertain. An interesting effect called the "reverse bullwhip" takes place where an increase in consumer demand uncertainty actually reduces order quantity uncertainty at the supplier. Another important extension of the EOQ model is to consider items with imperfect quality. Salameh and Jaber (2000) are the first to study the imperfect items in an EOQ model very thoroughly. They consider an inventory problem in which the demand is deterministic and there is a fraction of imperfect items in the lot and are screened by the buyer and sold by them at the end of the circle at discount price.

#### Keywords

Economic Order Quantity, Total Cost, Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy Arithmetic.

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