Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Review of Ant Based Multicast Routing Protocols for MANET

A. Sabari, Dr.K. Duraiswamy


Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) is an infrastructureless network with a set of dynamic, mobile and self-organizing nodes. Several methods have been proposed as solutions to the challenges associated with MANETs inspired by the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm. ACO is a nature inspired algorithm based on the foraging behavior of ants. Ants have been found to discover the shortest path from their nest to food over time using very adaptive means. Multicast provides an efficient way of dissemination of data from a sender to a group of receivers. One interesting research area in MANET is multicast routing. Due to the adaptive and dynamic nature, ant based multicast routing algorithms are gaining more importance in routing. This has led to development of many different ant based multicast routing protocols for MANETs. It is quite difficult to determine which protocols may perform best under frequent node mobility, varying number of nodes, dynamic topology, diverse link capacities, various group and packet size, limited practical bandwidth of the shared wireless channel and the battery power availability. Consequently, it becomes necessary for MANETs to have an efficient multicast routing based on ACO and a Quality of Service (QoS) mechanism. In this paper, we have provided an overview of a wide range of ant based multicast routing protocols proposed in the literature.


Ant Colony Optimization, Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Swarm Intelligence.

Full Text:



Osamah S. Badarneh and Michel Kadoch, ―Multicast Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Comparative Survey and Taxonomy‖, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Article ID: 764047, 42 pages, Volume 2009.

Mauro Birattari Marco Dorigo and Thomas Stutzle, ―Ant Colony Optimization, Artificial Ants as a Computational Intelligence Technique‖, IRIDIA – Technical Report Series Technical Report No. TR/IRDIA/2006-023, 2006.

Lin Huang, Haishan Han and Jian Hou, ―Multicast Routing Based on the Ant System‖, Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 1, no. 57, 2827 - 2838, 2007.

Diego Pinto, Benjami n Baran and Ramon Fabregat, ―Multi-Objective Multicast Routing based on Ant Colony Optimization‖, National Computing Center, National University of Asuncion - Paraguay, 2008.

Zeyad M. Alfawaer, GuiWei Hua, and Noraziah Ahmed, ―A Novel Multicast Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks‖, American Journal of Applied Sciences 4 (5): 333-338, ISSN 1546-9239, 2007.

Yuan Zhang, Huachun Cai, Ying Lin, Jing Xiao and Jun ZHANG, ―An Ant Colony System Algorithm for the Multicast Routing Problem‖, Third International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC 2007), IEEE, 2007.

Ying LIU, Jianping WU, Ke Xu, Mingwei Xu, ―The Degree-Constrained Multicasting Algorithm Using Ant Algorithm‖, Supported by National Science Foundation of China, IEEE, 2003.

Sheng-Yuan Tseng, Chang-Chun Lin, Yueh-Min Huang, ―Ant colony-based algorithm for constructing broadcasting tree with degree and delay constraints‖, Expert Systems with Applications, Elsevier, pp. 1473–1481, 2008.

Hua Wang, Zhao Shi, Shuai Li, ―Multicast routing for delay variation bound using a modified ant colony algorithm‖, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Elsevier, 2008.

YanPeng Liu, MingGuang Wu, JiXin Qian, ―The Distributed Multicast Routing Scheme with Delay Constraint Using Ant Colony Optimization‖, Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, Dalian, China, 2006.

Bencan Gong, Layuan Li, Xiangli Wang, ―Multicast Routing Based on Ant Algorithm with Multiple Constraints‖, pp.1945-1948, IEEE, 2007.

Hugo Hernandez and Christian Blum, ―Energy-Efficient Multicasting in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks: An Ant Colony Optimization Approach‖, IEEE ISWCS, 2008.

Guoying Lu, Zemin Liu, ―Multicast Routing Based on Ant-Algorithm with Delay and Delay Variation Constraints‖, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China, IEEE, 2000.

X.X.Cui, C.Lin, ―Multicast QoS routing optimization based on multiobjective genetic algorithm,‖ Journal of Computer Research and Development, vol.41, no.7, pp. 1144-1150, 2004.

M. Hamdan, and M.E. El-Hawary, ―Multicast routing with delay and delay variation constraints using genetic algorithm,‖IEEE CCGEI, pp. 363-2366, 2004.

Mehdi Karabi, Mahmood Fathy, and Mehdi Dehghan, ―QoS multicast routing based on a heuristic genetic algorithm,‖ IEEE CCGEI, pp. 1727-1730, 2004.

M. Dorigo, and G. D. Caro, ―Ant colonies for adaptive routing in packet switched communication networks,‖ In Proceedings of PPSN V-Fifth International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving from nature, Amsterdam, Holland, September 1998.

J.G. Jetcheva, David B. Johnson, ―Adaptive demand-driven multicast routing in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks‖, in: Proceedings of the ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc), October 2001.

Ducatelle, F., Di Caro, G., Gambardella, L.M., ―Ant agents for hybrid multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks‖, in: Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on Wireless On demand Network Systems and Services (WONS), 2005.

M. Charikar, J. Naor, and B. Schieber, ―Resource Optimization in QoS multicast Routing of Real-Time Multimedia,‖ in IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, Vol. 12, Issue 2, pp. 340 – 348, April 2004.

S. Guo and O. W. W. Yang, ―Energy-aware multicasting in wireless ad hoc networks: A survey and discussion,‖ Computer Communications, vol. 30, pp. 2129–2148, 2007.

P.-J. Wan, G. Calinescu, X.-Y. Li, and O. Frieder, ―Minimum-energy multicast routing in static ad hoc wireless networks,‖ IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 507–514, 2004.

C. Blum and M. Dorigo, ―The hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization,‖ IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man anc Cybernetics – Part B, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 1161–1172, 2004.

S. Al-Shihabi, P. Merz, and S. Wolf, ―Nested partitioning for the minimum energy broadcast,‖ in Proceeding of LION 2007 – Learning and Intelligent Optimization. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2007.

J. Crichigno, and B. Baran. ―A Multicast Routing Algorithm Using Multiobjective Optimization‖, IEEE ICT’ 2004, Ceara, Brazil, 2004.

J. Crichigno and B. Baran. ―Multiobjective Multicast Routing Algorithm for Traffic Engineering‖, IEEE ICCCN’ 2004, Chicago, US, 2004.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.