Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

An Empirical Study of Replication Algorithms in Content Distribution Networks

J. Amutharaj, S. Radhakrishnan


In this paper, we consider an efficient and resilient large file content push problem in a large-scale distributed Content Delivery Networks. Contents in CDN are replicated in many surrogate servers according to some content distribution strategies dictated by the application environment. Hence, we propose a novel content distribution policy to replicate the content from the origin server to a set of surrogate servers in an efficient and reliable manner. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First we introduce a novel Hybrid Replica (HR) algorithm and theoretically analyze its performance with traditional content replication algorithms. Then, by means of a simulation based performance evaluation, we assess the efficiency and resiliency of the proposed Hybrid Replica (HR), and compare its performance with traditional content replication algorithms as stated in the literature. We demonstrate in experiment that Hybrid Replica (HR) significantly reduces the file replication time as compared with traditional strategies such as sequential unicast, multiple unicast, Fast Replica (FR), Resilient Fast Replica(R-FR), and Tornado codes (TC). This paper also analyzes the performance of sequential unicast, multiple unicast, Fast Replica (FR), Resilient Fast Replica(R-FR), Tornado codes, and Hybrid Replica (HR) algorithms in terms of average replication time and maximum replication time. 


CDN, Fast Replica, Resilient Fast Replica, Hybrid Replica, Tornado Codes.

Full Text:



G. Pallis, and A. Vakali, “Insight and Perspectives for Content Delivery Networks,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 49, No. 1, ACM Press, NY, USA, pp. 101-106, January 2006.

A. Vakali, and G. Pallis, “Content Delivery Networks: Status and Trends,” IEEE Internet Computing, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 68-74, November-December 2003.

G. Peng, “CDN: Content Distribution Network,” Technical Report TR-125,” Experimental Computer Systems Lab, Department of Computer Science, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, 2003.

Content Distribution Networks – State of the art.,2002.

L. Cherksova, J. Kee, “Fast Replica: Efficient Large file Distribution within Content Delivery Networks”, Proc. of the 4th SENIX symposium on Internet Technologies, March 2002.

ZhiHui Lu, WeiMing Fu, ShiYong Zhang, YiPing Zhong, “TRRR: A Tree-Round-Robin-Replica Content Replication Algorithm for Improving FastReplica in Content Delivery Networks” in the proceeding of 4th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, 2008.

M. Hofmann, and L. R. Beaumont, “Content Networking: Architecture, Protocols, and Practice,” Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 129-134, 2005.

Z. Fei, S. Bhattacharjee, E. W. Zegura and M. H. Ammar, “A novel server selection technique for improving the response time of a replicated service”, proceedings in IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 2. San Francisco, CA, March 1998.

M. Sayal, Y. Breibart, P. Scheuermann, and R. Vingralek, ”Selection algorithm for replicated web servers,” presented at the workshop Internet server performance, Madison, June 1998.

Laurent Massoulie, Anne-Marie Kermarree, Ayalvadi J.Ganesh, “Network Awareness and Failure Resilience in Self – Organising Overlay Networks”, Proc. of the 2nd, International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, 2003.

P. Rodriguez and E. Biersack, “Dynamic parallel access to replicated content in the Internet”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 10(4), Aug. 2002.

J. Kanagharju, J. Roberts, K.W. Ross, “Object Replication Strategies in content distribution networks”, computer Communications, 25(4):367 – 383, March 2002.

A. M. K. Pathan and R. Buyya, “A Taxonomy and Survey of CDNs”, Technical Report, GRIDS-TR-2007-4, The University of Melbourne, Australia, Feb. 2007.

J. Broberg, R. Buyya, and Z. Tari, “MetaCDN: Harnessing ‘Storage Clouds’ for high performance content delivery”, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 5 April 2009.

M. O. Rabin, “Efficient Dispersal of Information for Security, Load Balancing, and Fault Tolerance.” In Journal of the ACM, Volume 38, pp. 335- 348, 1989.

J. Byers, M. Luby, M. Mitzenmacher, A. Rege., “A Digital Fountain approach to reliable distribution of bulk data”, Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, 1998.

J. Byers, M. Luby, and M. Mitzenmacher, A. Rege., “Accessing multiple mirror sites in parallel: Using tornado codes to speed up downloads”, in Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 1, New York, NY, Mar. 1999, pp. 275-283.

Danny Bickson , Dahlia Malkhi, “The julia content distribution network”, Proceedings of the 2nd conference on Real, Large Distributed Systems, p.37-41, December 13, 2005, San Francisco, CA.

Amutharaj. J, and Radhakrishnan. S, “Dominating Set based Semantic Overlay Networks for Efficient Content Distribution” proceedings in IEEE ICSCN 2007, vol. 1. Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai, Feb 2007.

Amutharaj. J, and Radhakrishnan. S, “ Dominating Set Theory based Semantic Overlay Networks for Efficient and Resilient Content Distribution”, Journal of Networks, Academy Publishers, Vol 3, March 2008.

K. Stamos, G. Pallis, A. Vakali, D. Katsaros, A. Sidiropoulos, Y. Manolopoulos: "CDNsim: A Simulation Tool for Content Distribution Networks",ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, April 2010.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.